1. using your own word to express the meaning of the item.
1. The author concludes that.......
This speaker claims that......
In this argument the author reaches the conclusion that.
2. The reasons offered to support this conclusion are that .....The ground for his evidence is that.......
3. This argument suffers from several critical problems .This line of reasoning is unconvincing for a couple of reasons. The reasoning of the argument is biased due to the inadequate and partiality in the nature of evidence provided to justify the conclusion .
肚子 ： 分论点的写法， 我觉得就是使劲不相信AUTHOR 我就是不和你一个调调
GMAT作文七宗罪第一罪 无因果联系： 前后发生 ， 不一定有因果联系 ， AS WELL AS 同时发生的东东
Causal relationship ,causal connection , causal claim , causal explanation.
The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification...
The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B , the
former event is responsibility for the latter .
The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality .However , the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A caused B.
a short time 所得出的不能代表长期情况 &一个例子不能得出普遍结论
representative, typical -----------exceptional atypical
The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it .
The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future trends.
One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion.
Unless it can be show that a is representative of all A . it is possible that...
In fact , in face of such limited evidence , the conclusion that B is completely unwarranted.
The argument contributes a characteristic of an individual member of a group to the group as a whole.
The author attempt to extract a general principle from a specific case,
GMAT作文七宗罪第三罪 错误类比 based on a false anology
A B 有相似的但是可能不同的更多 SO A 适用的B 不一定哦
The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects . This assumption is weak , since although there are points of comparison between A and B , there is much dissimilarities as well . For example , A........, however B.....thus ,it is likely more difficult for B to do.
The argument is unconvincing also because it is based on a false analogy .Failing to take into account the possible difference between A and B , the arguer makes a hasty conclusion . It is entirely possible that A and B are not similar enough to justify this analogical deduction 类比推理,
Perhaps ........ Or perhaps
Therefore , without providing sufficient information showing that most or even all of the conditions in A and B is similar or the same , the author cannot convince me that the method which is efficient in A can also be efficient in B .
GMAT作文七宗罪第四罪 不以发展的眼观看 thinks all things are equal
The author commits the fallacy of all thighs are equal.
The fact that happened two yers ago is not sound evidence to draw a conclusion that .......the author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or locations.
GMAT作文七宗罪第五罪 非此即彼 either – or choice
The author assumes that A and B are mutually exclusively alternatives and there is no room for the middle ground.
However , the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both A and B might produce better results.
GMAT作文七宗罪第六罪 调差值得怀疑 数目有问题不有代表性
Whether the sample is large enough to be representative?
The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative.
The cliam does not indicate who conducted the poll , who responded ,or when where and how the poll was conducted .
Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of respondents , it is impossible to access the validity of the result. For example....
Until these question are answered ,the results of the survey are worthless as evidence for the conclusion.
题目的结论BASED ON 一个没有根据的假设上 这个假设always不成立因为他有其可能性
The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that....
However , no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption .
In fact , this is more likely that ..... therefore ,this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.
To conclude , the argument is not very convincing
To sum up , the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to the arguer’s cliam.
To strength the argument To solidity the argument To make it logically acceptable ,
Additionally , the author must provide sufficient evidence of...
Furthermore , the arguer would have to find out the real reasons that cause.