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  GMAT逻辑类比推理简介

  1、类比推理是GMAT逻辑推理模式的一种,是一种通过已知事物(或事例)与跟它有某些相同特点的事物(或事例)进行比较类推,从而证明论点的论证方法。

  2、类比推理的特点:不是简单地将两个事情相比,而是把两个事物(A、B)的相同点列出来,然后在给出A的一个特点,推理出B也应该有这个特点。

  3、类比推理的形式:Premises:A和B有相似点,A有某个特点——>Conclusion:B也有这个特点。

  GMAT逻辑类比推理的解题方法

  1、类比推理的解题要点有两个:第一个要素是在原文的论述中必须出现两组相似的对象;第二个要素是包含了一个“相同”或者“不同”的意思在里面。

  2、GMAT逻辑题其实考的是评估论证,类比推理也不例外,而评估论证的方法称为 Critical Question,简称CQ。评估的方向有四种,有问加强,有问削弱,这里我们用削弱来举例类比论证的CQ模式。

  1)CQ1:A和B两个案例真的相似吗?(只要说到了A和B两个案例之间的一个可能的不相似点就可以削弱这个推理。)

  2)CQ2:是否存在一个counterexample C呢?(能不能找到一个C,使得其具有AB相似点,但是不具有结论中要推断的相似点。)

  3、解题方法总结:选项中一定要涉及到两个案例,或这个要出现和题目中两个案例完全不一样的案例。如果选项只说原理或这个只涉及题目中出现的一个案例,那么就一定不是答案。

  GMAT逻辑类比推理举例分析

  In Borania many people who want to quit smoking wear nicotine skin patches, which deliver small doses of nicotine through the skin. Beginning next month, these patches can be purchased without a doctor's prescription. Although nonprescription patches will be no more effective than those obtained by prescription and will be equally expensive, patch manufacturers are nevertheless predicting that the patches' new nonprescription status will boost sales, which have slowed considerably in recent years.

  Which of the following, if true in Borania, most strongly supports the manufacturers' prediction?

  (A) Most people who wanted to quit smoking and who found the nicotine skin patch helpful in quitting have quit. (虽然和题目有关,但是没说两个案例的不同,不能形成评估)

  (B) Nicotine skin patches generally cost more to use than do other types of aids that help people to quit smoking. (虽然和题目有关,但是没说两个案例的不同,不能形成评估)

  (C) Several nonprescription aids aimed at helping people to quit smoking have been widely available for a number of years. (说到了 nonprescription,但是没说两个案例的不同,不能形成评估)

  (D) Many smokers who want to quit smoking feel that they cannot afford to visit a doctor for a prescription.(虽然看似只说了 prescription,但是默认你知道处方药是要医生开的,非处方药是可以自己买的。所以提及了两个案例的不同,可以留下)

  (E) People who use nicotine skin patches have approximately the same rate of success in quitting smoking as do people who use other aids aimed at helping people to quit smoking. (虽然和题目有关,但是没说两个案例的不同,不能形成评估)

  类比推理分析:

  通读stimulus,找到结论句:patch manufacturers are nevertheless predicting that the patches' new nonprescription status will boost sales, which have slowed considerably in recent years.

  看前提:prescription和nonprescription的相似点是no more effective和equally expensive;prescription的特点是sales have slowed considerably.

  (本来应该推出nonprescription也应该是sales have slowed considerably,但却得到boost sales的结论,问题让我们support这个结论,就是让我们削弱这个推理模式。)

  找选项: 根据CQ1,找两个案例的不相似点,所以两者结论不同。

  以上内容由智课小编为大家整理的关于“GMAT逻辑类比方法解析篇”,希望可以帮助到大家,小编在此预祝大家在考试中取得好成绩!

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