I. 名词(或主格结构)+动词的非谓语动词形式Hereare the first two volumes, the third one to come out next week.The plan havingbeen made, what is important is to put it into practice.The duty completed, hehad three months’ leave.
II. 名词(或主格代词)+形容词Heentered the room, his nose red with cold.She looked at him expectantly, hereyes full of excitement and curiosity.
III. 名词(或主格代词)+介词短语I stoodat his left, my finger on the button, waiting for the order.The teacher enteredthe classroom, chalk in one hand, (a) textbook in the other.
IV. 名词(或主格代词)+副词Classover, all the students went out from the classroom.He put on his socks, wrongside out.
V. 名词(或主格代词)+名词His firstshot failed, he fired again.She sat alone in the room, her only company a dyingfire.
注意：GMAT攻略提示以上独立结构都可以看成是带being的分词复合结构的省略形式。加入being就变成了分词的复合结构。如：Here are the first two volumes, the third one (being) to come outnext week.He entered the room, his nose (being) red with cold.I stood at hisleft, my finger (being) on the button, waiting for the order.
VI. 介词with或without引导的独立结构。这种独立结构的一般构成为：with/without+名/代词+(分词、形容词、副词、不定式、介词短语)，如：With the old man leading, the two started towards the mountains.Shefelt nervous, with all eyes fixed on her.Never sleep with the window open inthe winter.With John away, we’ve got more room.With five minutes to go beforethe last train left, we arrived at the station.His wife came down the stairs,with her two-year-old son in her arms.
VII. “There being +名词” 结构There being nomoney left, we have to change our plan.There being no spare parts, theequipment could not be repaired at once.