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*The argument

开头段的思路：

第一句指出原论证的结构或主张

第二句指出原论证的论据

第三句指出原论证的重要假设

最后指出原论证犯有逻辑错误

正文：

一段一个方面，注意句型

结尾：

结论，对如何加强提出建议。

开头段模式：

1. In this argument, the arguer recommend (conclude) that…

2. This recommendation is based on the result (evidence; fact) of the survey that…

3. In addition, the arguer assumes this…

4. A careful examination would review how groundless the argument (conclusion) is…

对于文中涉及数字的黄金句型：

1. The survey on which the argument relies lacks credibility and therefore does not lend strong support to what the arguer assumes.

2. The statistical evidence on which the argument depends is so vague (unrepresentative) that it does not validate the auger’s assumption (claim).

对于正文有用的句型：

1. The argument rests on the unfounded(unconvincing,　unreasonable,　gratuitous,　groundless,　unwarranted)　assumption that…

2. The arguer fails to take Into account other possible factors that might (lend to, result in)…

3. The arguer ignores other relevant factors concerning +名词结构

4. The arguer fails to convince us that (sb of)…

5. The evidence provided in this argument is not sufficient to validate the assumption that…

黄金句型

1. The arguer fails to provide solid (any, sufficient, concrete) evidence to prove that …/to support the assumption that…/to validate the assumption that …/quarantine the conclusion that…

2. Another point worth concerning is that the arguer fails to take into account…

3. The reasoning that …is open to doubt /unreliable/problematic.

4. Another assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal of relationship between A&B./…is that /the claim that…

5. The fact that …says little (nothing) about…

对于正文的分析以及结尾模式：

1. 采取推测法，推测有可能的例证，反例，推测作者论证可导致的其他结论。

It is likely (possible) that…

It is impossible that…

One possibility is that…another possibility is that…the third possibility is that…

May, might, perhaps

2. 假设

If… even If; granted that …we can not ensure that… ,unless….

结尾的三句话框架：

指出原论者没有论证自己的结论，分别指出可以从正文所分析的方面加强原论证。

三个结尾的范例：

1、In this conclusion, the arguer fails to validate the claim that… To solidify the argument .the arguer should supply more evidence to Indicate (demonstrate) that…In addition, the arguer would have to rule out the above-mentioned possibilities that might undermine the auger’s conclusion.

2、To sum up, the conclusion lacks of credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the auger claims. to make the argument more convincing ,the arguer would have to provide more Information concerning …

3、As It stands, the argument Is not well reasoned .to make It logically acceptable ,the arguer should provide more concrete evidence to demonstrate that …what’s more ,the arguer must supply more 具体化 Information to strong the conclusion.

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