When limitations were in effect on nuclear-arms testing, people tended to save more of their money, but when nuclear-arms testing increased, people tended to spend more of their money. The perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe, therefore, decreases the willingness of people to postpone consumption for the sake of saving money.
The argument above assumes that
A. the perceived threat of nuclear catastrophe has increased over the years.
B. most people supported the development of nuclear arms
C. people’s perception of the threat of nuclear catastrophe depends on the amount of nuclear-arms testing being done
D. the people who saved the most money when nuclear-arms testing was limited were the ones who supported such limitations(C)
E. there are more consumer goods available when nuclear-arms testing increases
On the basis of an observed correlation between arms testing and people’s tendency to save money, the argument concludes that there is a causal connection between a perception of threat and the tendency not to save. That connection cannot be made unless C, linking the perception of threat to the amount of testing being done, is assumed to be true. Therefore, C is the best answer.
Because no employee wants to be associated with bad news in the eyes of a superior, information about serious problems at lower levels is progressively softened and distorted as it goes up each step in the management hierarchy. The chief executive is, therefore, less well informed about problems at lower levels than are his or her subordinates at those levels.
The conclusion drawn above is based on the assumption that
(D) chief executives obtain information about problems at lower levels from no source other than their subordinates(D)
(E) some employees are more concerned about truth than about the way they are perceived by their superiors
OG解释：Choice E, if true, would tend to counteract the phenomenon the passage describes.
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.
The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.(E)
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers
OG 解释：The argument is consistent with managers at all levels using intuition in the minority of decisions made. Thus, choice D is inappropriate.