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  1. Airline: Newly developed collision-avoidance systems, although not fully tested to discover potential malfunctions, must be installed immediately in passenger planes. Their mechanical warnings enable pilots to avoid crashes.

  Pilots: Pilots will not fly in planes with collision-avoidance systems that are not fully tested. Malfunctioning systems could mislead pilots, causing crashes.

  The pilots’ objection is most strengthened if which of the following is true?

  (A) It is always possible for mechanical devices to malfunction.

  (B) Jet engines, although not fully tested when first put into use, have achieved exemplary performance and safety records.

  (C) Although collision-avoidance systems will enable pilots to avoid some crashes, the likely malfunctions of the not-fully-tested systems will cause even more crashes.

  (D) Many airline collisions are caused in part by the exhaustion of overworked pilots.

  (E) Collision-avoidance systems, at this stage of development, appear to have worked better in passenger planes than in cargo planes during experimental flights made over a six-month period.

  2. The town of Stavanger, Norway, was quiet and peaceful until early 1960’s, when Stavanger became Norway’s center for offshore oil exploration. Between then and now, violent crime and vandalism in Stavanger have greatly increased. Clearly, these social problems are among the results of Stavanger’s oil boom.

  Which of the following, if it occurred between the early 1960’s and now, gives the strongest support to the argument above?

  (A) The people of Stavanger rarely regret that their town was chosen to be Norway’s center for offshore oil exploration.

  (B) Norwegian sociologists expressed grave concern about the increase in violent crime and vandalism in Stavanger.

  (C) Violent crime and vandalism have remained low in Norwegian that had no oil boom.

  (D) Nonviolent crime, drug addiction, and divorce in Stavanger increased approximately as much as violent crime and vandalism did.

  (E) The oil boom necessitated the building of wider roads for the increased traffic in Stavanger.

  3. Two decades after the Emerald River Dam was built, none of the eight fish species native to the Emerald River was still reproducing adequately in the river below the dam. Since the dam reduced the annual range of water temperature in the river below the dam from 50 degrees to 6 degrees, scientists have hypothesized that sharply rising water temperatures must be involved in signaling the native species to begin the reproductive cycle.

  Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the scientists’ hypothesis?

  (A) The native fish species were still able to reproduce only in side streams of the river below the dam where the annual temperature range remains approximately 50 degrees.

  (B) Before the dam was built, the Emerald River annually overflowed its banks, creating backwaters that were critical breeding areas for the native species of fish.

  (C) The lowest recorded temperature of the Emerald River before the dam was built was 34 degrees, whereas the lowest recorded temperature of the river after the dam was built has been 43 degrees.

  (D)Nonnative species of fish, introduced into the Emerald River after the dam was built, have begun competing with the declining native fish species for food and space.

  (E) Five of the fish species native to the Emerald River are not native to any other river in North America.

  4. In recent years many cabinetmakers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since furniture must be useful, cabinetmakers must exercise their craft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason, cabinetmaking is not art.

  Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion?

  (A) Some furniture is made to be placed in museums, where it will not be used by anyone.

  (B) Some cabinetmakers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of the products they produce.

  (C) Cabinetmakers should be more concerned with the practical utility of their products than they currently are.

  (D) An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the object’s practical utility.

  (E) Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products.

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