Linguist: In English, the past is described as “behind” and the future “ahead,” whereas in Aymara the past is “ahead” and the future “behind.” Research indicates that English speakers sway backward when discussing the past and forward when discussing the future. Conversely, Aymara speakers gesture forward with their hands when discussing the past and backward when discussing the future. These bodily movements, therefore, suggest that the language one speaks affects how one mentally visualizes time.
The linguist's reasoning depends on assuming which of the following?
A. At least some Aymara speakers sway forward when discussing the past and backward when discussing the future.
B. Most people mentally visualize time as running either forward or backward.
C. Not all English and Aymara speakers tend to sway or gesture forward or backward when discussing the present.
D. How people move when discussing the future correlates to some extent with how they mentally visualize time.
E. The researchers also examined the movements of at least some speakers of languages other than English and Aymara discussing the past and the future.
正确答案;D Argument Construction
Situation A linguist argues that the language one speaks affects how one mentally visualizes time. The linguist's argument is based on the fact that English speakers, who refer to the past as “behind” and the future as “ahead,” display backward and forward bodily movements when speaking of the past and the future, while speakers of Aymara, who refer to the past as “ahead” and the future as “behind” display correspondingly different body movements.
Reasoning What must be true if we are to accept the linguist's conclusion from the given information that the language one speaks affects how one mentally visualizes time? The linguist's evidence will support the conclusion only if there is some correlation between people's bodily movements and how they mentally visualize time. So, the linguist's reasoning requires an assumption to that effect.
Correct. The fact that English and Aymara speakers sway or gesture in the ways described would be irrelevant to the linguist's conclusion if how people move when discussing the future does not correlate at least to some extent with how they visualize time.
Arts advocate: Few universities require that students who are specializing in science and technology take many art courses. However, real progress in science and technology requires an element of creativity, which the arts foster. Thus, to help science and technology students succeed in their careers, universities should increase the number of art courses required for them.
Which of the following would, if true, most strengthen the argument above?
A. Universities required more art courses for science and technology students in the past.
B. Participation in art courses increases students’ creative thinking in their science and technology courses.
C. More students who are interested in art would specialize in science and technology if the number of art courses required for those programs were increased.
D. Some of the most prominent scientists began their careers as artists.
E. Discussion of science and technology topics in art courses increases creative thinking among students in those courses.