Cognitive scientist: Using the pioneering work of comparative psychologist Gordon Gallup as a model, several studies have investigated animals’ capacity for mirror self-recognition (MSR). Most animals exposed to a mirror respond only with social behavior, such as aggression. However, in the case of the great apes, repeated exposure to mirrors leads to self-directed behaviors, such as exploring the inside of the mouth, suggesting that these animals recognize the reflection as an image of self. The implication of these studies is that the great apes have a capacity for self- awareness unique among nonhuman species.
The cognitive scientist makes which of the following assumptions in the argument above?
A.Gallup's work has established that the great apes have a capacity for MSR unique among nonhuman species.
B.If an animal does not have the capacity for MSR, it does not have the capacity for self-awareness.
C.If a researcher exposes an animal to a mirror and that animal exhibits social behavior, that animal is incapable of being self-aware.
D.When exposed to a mirror, all animals display either social behavior or self-directed behavior.
E.Animals that do not exhibit MSR may demonstrate a capacity for self-awareness in other ways.
Situation A cognitive scientist claims that several studies, modeled on Gordon Gallup's work, have investigated animals' capacity for mirror self-recognition (MSR), and found that, whereas most animals exposed to a mirror exhibit only social behavior in response, great apes can come to respond with self-directed behavior. The cognitive scientist infers from this that the great apes, unique among nonhumans, have a capacity for self-awareness.
Reasoning What must be true for the studies to support the cognitive scientist's conclusion? The implicit reasoning is that an animal has self-awareness only if the animal has the capacity for MSR; if the latter is lacking, so is the capacity for self-awareness.
Correct. If it were possible for an animal to have the capacity for self-awareness even if the animal lacks the capacity for MSR, then the studies would not imply that the great apes have a capacity for self-awareness that other nonhuman animal species lack.