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  总模板

  In this argument, the author concludes that… To support his conclusion, the author points out that…. In addition, the author reasons that… Further more, he also assumes that …. At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somehow appealing, while a close examination will reveal how groundless it is. We do not have to look very far to see the invalidity of this argument. This argument is problematic for the following reasons.

  In the first place, this argument rests on a gratuitous assumption that …. However, the assumption is questionable because the author provides no evidence to support this argument. The arguer fails to take into account other facts that might contribute to the result that …….. It is likely that , ……………..; it is also likely that …………………………Any of these scenarios, if true, would show that ………………Therefore, this argument in question nee not to be accepted without ruling out such possibility.

  In the second place, the argument commits a logic fallacy of “after this and therefore because of this”. In no case can the mere fact that… be cited as evidence to support the assumption that there is a causal-effect relationship between A and B. Moreover, that just because B can be statistically correlated with A doesnot necessarily mean that A is the cause of B. In fact, the author has obviously neglected the possibility of other alternative facts such as…, or …may contribute to a certain extent to B. It may be only a coincidence that ……. Unless the author can rule out other factors relevant to …, this assumption in question can not be accepted.

  In the third place, the evidence that the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is rarely sufficient to establisha general conclusion. Unless the arguer can show that A1 is representative of all A, the conclusion that B… is completely unwarranted. In fact, in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all.

  In the fourth place, the argument has also committed a false analogy fallacy. The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects, and the author assumes without justification that all things are equal, and that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. No evidence is provided to support this assumption. However there are all kinds of important differences between ……. and other …making the analogy highly less than valid. For example, A..., however, B....Thus lacking this assumption, the conclusion that …is entirely unfounded.

  Last but no least, the validity of the survey on which the argument relies is doubtful in itself. The survey cited by the author is too vague to be informative.

  The claim does not indicate who conducted this survey and when and how the survey is conducted, neither does it mention what is the sample size, or how the samples are selected. Until these questions are answered the results of this survey are worthless as evidence to support that….

  Besides, the author assumes that A and B are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground. However, the author has never offered any reasons or evidences for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense and observation tells us that adjoining both A and B might produce better results.

  普通的结尾

  In conclusion, the arguer fails to substantiate his claim that …. Because the evidence cited in the analysis is too weak to lend strong support to what the arguer claims. To strengthen the argument, the arguer must convince us that…. In addition, the arguer could have to provide more precise information to support his claim.

  建议文章的结尾

  In conclusion, it is imprudent for …to …solely on the basis of the evidence presented. Because the evidence cited in the analysis is too weak to lend strong support to what the arguer claims. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer should provide more substantial evidence concerning that…Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation(conclusion) untilthe arguer could provide all concrete evidence to rule out all the above possibilities that I analyzed.

  调研文章的结尾

  In conclusion, the survey on which the argument relies lacks credibility and therefore does not lend strong support to the conclusion that…To strengthen the argument, the arguer must convince us that…. Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation(conclusion) until the arguer could provide all concrete evidence to rule out all the above possibilities that I analyzed.

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