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  1. 主谓语单复数一致性

  以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

  注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

  2. 合成主语必须用复数形式

  由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。

  如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

  注意:(1)若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如:The writer and artist has come. (2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

  3. 名词或代词短语不影响单复数形式

  主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。

  如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

  4. 复合不定代词如何判断单复数

  either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。

  如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

  注意:(1)在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词也可用复数。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. (2)若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。如:None of us has (have) been to America.

  5. 关系代词做主语时的单复数问题

  在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

  如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

  6. 集体名词单复数使用差异

  如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。

  如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

  注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

  7. 数量词构成短语的单复数用法

  由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。

  如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

  注意:a number of“许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语用复数;the number of“……的数量”,主语是number,谓语用单数。

  8. 倒装句中的动词单复数问题

  在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.

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