Being that she was secretary of labor, Frances Perkins’ considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used preventing him from restraining strikes by longshoremen and automobile workers.
A. Being that she was secretary of labor, Frances Perkins’ considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used preventing
B. As secretary of labor, Frances Perkins’ considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used to prevent
C. Being secretary of labor, Frances Perkins’ considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt was used preventing
D. As secretary of labor, Frances Perkins used her considerable influence with Franklin D. Roosevelt to prevent
E. Secretary of labor, Frances Perkins’ considerable influence was used with Franklin D. Roosevelt preventing
Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz repertory.
A. Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted
B. Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work that was rooted both
C. Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work rooted
D. Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that was rooted
E. Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted both
In the late 1980’s, the population of sea otters in the North Pacific Ocean began to decline. Of the two plausible explanations for the decline—increased predation by killer whales or disease—disease is the more likely. After all, a concurrent sharp decline in the populations of seals and sea lions was almost certainly caused by a pollution-related disease, which could have spread to sea otters, whereas the population of killer whales did not change noticeably.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the reasoning?
A. Killer whales in the North Pacific usually prey on seals and sea lions but will, when this food source is scarce, seek out other prey.
B. There is no indication that substantial numbers of sea otters migrated to other locations from the North Pacific in the 1980’s.
C. Along the Pacific coast of North America in the 1980’s, sea otters were absent from many locations where they had been relatively common in former times.
D. Following the decline in the population of the sea otters, there was an increase in the population of sea urchins, which are sea otters’ main food source.
E. The North Pacific populations of seals and sea lions cover a wider geographic area than does the population of sea otters.
Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved by a move toward larger, simpler clinical trials of medical treatments. Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials—substantially more than hospitals collect—thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.
Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment’s efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient’s stage of disease. Patients’ ages may also affect a treatment’s efficacy.