The four-million-year-old fossilized skeleton known as Lucy is so small compared with many other skeletons presumed to be of the same species, and so some paleontologists have argued that Lucy represents a different lineage.
A. presumed to be of the same species, and so
B. presumed to be of the same species that
C. presumed that they are of the same species, and so
D. that they have presumed to be of the same species, so that
E. that they have presumed are of the same species, and
Hunter: Hunters alone are blamed for the decline in Greenrock National Forest’s deer population over the past ten years. Yet clearly, black bears have also played an important role in this decline. In the past ten years, the forest’s protected black bear population has risen sharply, and examination of black bears found dead in the forest during the deer hunting season showed that a number of them had recently fed on deer.
In the hunter’s argument, the boldface portion plays which of the following roles?
A. It is the main conclusion of the argument.
B. It is an objection that has been raised against the main conclusion of the argument.
C. It is a judgment that the argument opposes.
D. It is a finding that the argument seeks to explain.
E. It provides evidence in support of the main conclusion of the argument.
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.
A. which includes the establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing
B. which includes establishing limits to the size of sharks that can be caught, closing
C. which include the establishment of size limits for shark catches, the closing of
D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing
E. including the establishing of limits to the size of sharks that are caught, the closing of
Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.
A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all
GWD3-Q5 to Q7:
In 1994, a team of scientists led by David Mckay began studying the meteorite ALH84001, which had been discovered in Antarctica in 1984. Two years later, the McKay team announced that ALH84001, which scientists generally agree originated on Mars, contained compelling evidence that life once existed on Mars. This evidence includes the discovery of organic molecules in ALH84001, the first ever found in Martian rock. Organic molecules—complex, carbonbased compounds—form the basis for terrestrial life. The organic molecules found in ALH84001 are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAH’s. When microbes die, their organic material often decays into PAH’s.
Skepticism about the McKay team’s claim remains, however. For example, ALH84001 has been on earth for 13,000 years, suggesting to some scientists that its PAH’s might have resulted form terrestrial contamination. However, McKay’s team has demonstrated that the concentration of PAH’s increases as one looks deeper into ALH84001, contrary to what one would expect from terrestrial contamination. The skeptic’s strongest argument, however, is that processes unrelated to organic life can easily produce all the evidence found by McKay’ s team, including PAH’s. For example, star formation produces PAH’s. Moreover, PAH’s frequently appear in other meteorites, and no one attributes their presence to life processes. Yet McKay’s team notes that the particular combination of PAH’s in ALH84001 is more similar to the combinations produced by decaying organisms than to those originating form nonbiological processes.