Line(1)One proposal for preserving rain forests is to promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies, such as improved plant varieties and use of chemical herbicides, which would increase (5) productivity and slow deforestation by reducing demand for new cropland. Studies have shown that farmers in developing countries who have achieved certain levels of education, wealth, and security of land tenure are more likely to adopt such (10) technologies. But these studies have focused on villages with limited land that are tied to a market economy rather than on the relatively isolated, self‐sufficient communities with ample land characteristic of rain-forest regions. A recent study of the Tawahka (15) people of the Honduran rain forest found thatfarmers with some formal education were more likely to adopt improved plant varieties but less likely to use chemical herbicides and that those who spoke Spanish (the language of the market economy) were (20) more likely to adopt both technologies. Nonland wealth was also associated with more adoption of both technologies, but availability of uncultivated land reduced the incentive to employ the productivity‐enhancing technologies. Researchers also measured (25) land-tenure security: in Tawahka society, kinshipties are a more important indicator of this than are legal property rights, so researchers measured it by a household’s duration of residence in its village. They found that longer residence correlated with more (30) adoption of improved plant varieties but lessadoption of chemical herbicides.
Questions 411–412 refer to the passage.
411.The passage suggests that in the study mentioned in line 14 the method for gathering information about security of land tenure reflects which of the following pairs of assumptions about Tawahka society?
1.The security of a household’s land tenure depends on the strength of that household’s kinship ties, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is an indication of the strength of that household’s kinship ties.
2.The ample availability of land makes security of land tenure unimportant, and the lack of a need for secure land tenure has made the concept of legal property rights unnecessary.
3.The strength of a household’s kinship ties is a more reliable indicator of that household’s receptivity to new agricultural technologies than is its quantity of nonland wealth, and the duration of a household’s residence in its village is a more reliable indicator of that household’s security of land tenure than is the strength of its kinship ties.
4.Security of land tenure based on kinship ties tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of improved plant varieties, and security of land tenure based on long duration of residence in a village tends to make farmers more receptive to the use of chemical herbicides.
5.A household is more likely to be receptive to the concept of land tenure based on legal property rights if it has easy access to uncultivated land, and a household is more likely to uphold the tradition of land tenure based on kinship ties if it possesses a significant degree of nonland wealth.
412.According to the passage, the proposal mentioned in line 1 is aimed at preserving rain forests by encouraging farmers in rain-forest regions to do each of the following EXCEPT
1.adopt new agricultural technologies
2.grow improved plant varieties
3.decrease their use of chemical herbicides
4.increase their productivity
5.reduce their need to clear new land for cultivation